Archivo de la categoría: Reports (Noticias en inglés)

Obesity and cognition.

brain cognition

-Marina Muñoz Cervera-

This article published on 21 August 2012 in the journal Neurology brings us new knowledge about obesity and the cognitive function: Obesity phenotypes in midlife and cognition in early old age
The Whitehall II cohort study

The objetive was to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status with cognitive function and decline.

Methods: A total of 6,401 adults (71.2% men), aged 39–63 years in 1991–1993, provided data on BMI (normal weight 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25–29.9 kg/m2; and obese ≥30 kg/m2) and metabolic status (abnormality defined as 2 or more of 1) triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L or lipid-lowering drugs, 2) systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg, or antihypertensive drugs, 3) glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L or medications for diabetes, and 4) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L for men and <1.29 mmol/L for women). Four cognitive tests (memory, reasoning, semantic, and phonemic fluency) were administered in 1997–1999, 2002–2004, and 2007–2009, standardized to z scores, and averaged to yield a global score.

They obtained the following results:

Of the participants, 31.0% had metabolic abnormalities, 52.7% were normal weight, 38.2% were overweight, and 9.1% were obese. Among the obese, the global cognitive score at baseline (p = 0.82) and decline (p = 0.19) over 10 years was similar in the metabolically normal and abnormal groups. In the metabolically normal group, the 10-year decline in the global cognitive score was similar (p for trend = 0.36) in the normal weight (−0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.42 to −0.38), overweight (−0.42; 95% CI −0.45 to −0.39), and obese (−0.42; 95% CI −0.50 to −0.34) groups. However, in the metabolically abnormal group, the decline on the global score was faster among obese (−0.49; 95% CI −0.55 to −0.42) than among normal weight individuals (−0.42; 95% CI −0.50 to −0.34), (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: “In these analyses the fastest cognitive decline was observed in those with both obesity and metabolic abnormality”.

Link related:Obesity and metabolic syndrome


Archana Singh-Manoux, PhD, Sébastien Czernichow, MD, PhD, Alexis Elbaz, MD, PhD, Aline Dugravot, MSc, Séverine Sabia, PhD, Gareth Hagger-Johnson, PhD, Sara Kaffashian, MSc, Marie Zins, MD, PhD, Eric J. Brunner, PhD, Hermann Nabi, PhD and Mika Kivimäki, PhD

Neurology August 21, 2012 vol. 79 no. 8 755-762


Obesity and metabolic syndrome.

metabolic syndrome

– Marina Muñoz Cervera-

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions — increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist or abnormal cholesterol levels — that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

Having metabolic syndrome means you have three or more disorders related to your metabolism at the same time, including:

  • Obesity, with your body fat concentrated around your waist (having an “apple shape”). For a metabolic syndrome diagnosis, obesity is defined by having a waist circumference of 40 inches (102 centimeters or cm) or more for men and 35 inches (89 cm) or more for women, although waist circumference cutoff points can vary by race.
  • Increased blood pressure, meaning a systolic (top number) blood pressure measurement of 130 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or more or a diastolic (bottom number) blood pressure measurement of 85 mm Hg or more.
  • High blood sugar level, with a fasting blood glucose test result of 100 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL), or 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or more.
  • High cholesterol, with a level of the blood fat called triglycerides of 150 mg/dL, (1.7 millimoles/liter or mmol/L) or more and a level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the “good” cholesterol — of less than 40 mg/dL (1.04 mmol/L) for men or 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for women.

Having one component of metabolic syndrome means you’re more likely to have others. And the more components you have, the greater are the risks to your health.

Source: Mayo Clinic Staff. Metabolic Syndrome


Nutrition calculator on line in english.

nutritional calculator

In the FAO (Food Agriculture Organization) web site: Nutrition and consumer protection (1) there are several recommended web sites about software food information , in one of them we can make calculations nutritional. You can access via the link:  Self nutrition data (2).

We can calculate our BMI and know the calories and nutrients that give us the food and even recipes for food.



Marina Muñoz Cervera

Report: Link between obesity and inadequated sleep.

“Sleep restriction might lead to a greater propensity to overeat due to increased activation of the brain in response to food stimuli, according to US researchers from Columbia University and St Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital in New York.”

To read more go to the link: Brain response to food stimuli may explain link between inadequate sleep and obesity

Source: EUFIC European Food Information Council


Marina Muñoz Cervera

Report: Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality.


Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD).

The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,717 men and women.

Design: HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HRper 10-g/d increase: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HRper 10-g/d increase: 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non–smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d.

Conclusions: Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance.

Source: Shu-Chun Chuang, Teresa Norat, Neil Murphy, Anja Olsen, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault, Florence Perquier, Laureen Dartois, Rudolf Kaaks, Birgit Teucher, Manuela M Bergmann, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Sara Grioni, Carlotta Sacerdote, Salvatore Panico, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Petra HM Peeters, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Martine M Ros, Magritt Brustad, Lene Angell Ǻsli, Guri Skeie, J Ramón Quirós, Carlos A González, María-José Sánchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz Aicua, Miren Dorronsoro, Isabel Drake, Emily Sonestedt, Ingegerd Johansson, Göran Hallmans, Timothy Key, Francesca Crowe, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas Wareham, Pietro Ferrari, Nadia Slimani, Isabelle Romieu, Valentina Gallo, Elio Riboli, and Paolo Vineis.

Am J Clin Nutr July 2012 vol. 96 no. 1 164-174


Report: Low carbohydrate-high protein diets (Article of BMJ).

Cite: BMJ 2012;344:e3801

BMJ 2012; 344 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3801 (Published 19 June 2012)  

Anna Floegel, nutritional epidemiologist; Tobias Pischon, professor.

Short term benefits of weight loss seem outweighed by longer term cardiovascular harms

Low carbohydrate-high protein diets and their combinations (such as the Atkins diet) have become popular worldwide and are frequently adopted for weight control by lay people. These diets have also been suggested to have health benefits over low fat diets, mainly on the basis of results from short term intervention studies. These benefits include reductions in plasma triglyceride, glycated haemoglobin, and insulin concentrations as well as in systolic blood pressure, with consequent improvements in conditions such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, the long term health effects of low carbohydrate-high protein diets are unclear, particularly as adherence to them has been associated with higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases in prospective cohort studies. These conflicting results have fostered a debate over the benefits and risks of such diets.

In the linked article (doi:10.1136/bmj.e4026), Lagiou and colleagues investigated the association between adherence to low carbohydrate-high protein diets and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in a prospective cohort of 43396 Swedish women followed for an average of 15.7 years. They looked for a diagnosis of incident cardiovascular disease, including ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or peripheral arterial disease. The women’s habitual diet was assessed by use of food frequency questionnaires at baseline, and participants were grouped according to the macronutrient composition of their diets into tenths of low carbohydrate, high protein, and low carbohydrate plus high protein intake. Stronger adherence to any of these dietary patterns was consistently associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in a dose-response manner and independently of common risk factors. In particular, women had a 5% higher incidence of cardiovascular disease for each tenth of an increase in the low carbohydrate-high protein score, yielding a 62% higher incidence among women in the highest categories of low carbohydrate-high protein diets compared with the lowest.

In the context of previous studies, Lagiou and colleagues provide further evidence that challenges the safety of long term adherence to low carbohydrate-high protein diets. Although these results are based on an observational study, their biological plausibility seems self evident. A low carbohydrate diet implies low consumption of wholegrain foods, fruits, and starchy vegetables and consequently reduced intake of fibre, vitamins, and minerals. A high protein diet may indicate higher intake of red and processed meat and thus higher intake of iron, cholesterol, and saturated fat. These single factors have previously been linked to a higher risk of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, in observational studies, so it is not surprising that this combination of risk factors is linked to a higher incidence of disease and mortality.

As a consequence, long term adherence to low carbohydrate-high protein diets would require careful food choices, such as increased consumption of proteins from vegetables and cautious monitoring of saturated versus unsaturated fat intake, to avoid unfavourable eating patterns. This problem becomes even more challenging considering that these types of diets are mainly targeted at overweight and obese people, whose diets tend to be of lower quality. In addition, the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in people following low carbohydrate-high protein diets was seen consistently across different protein sources and when adjusted for fat quality. This further highlights the role of other factors not adjusted for by the authors, such as intake of fruits, vegetables, and fibre, and illustrates the complexity of these unfavourable eating patterns that may result from such diets.

A multinational randomised controlled trial recently found that adherence to a high protein diet reduced body weight but did not improve intermediary cardiovascular phenotypes. In the same study, adherence to a low glycaemic index and low protein diet improved cardiovascular disease risk markers in addition to reducing body weight. In this context, Lagiou and colleagues’ study may ring the bell for a new round in the scientific debate on the usefulness of low carbohydrate-high protein diets.

Despite the popularity of these diets, clinicians should probably advise against their use for long term control of body weight. The European Society of Cardiology recommends high intakes of fruits, vegetables, and wholegrain products and reduced fat intake, a pattern unlikely to fit low carbohydrate-high protein diets. Even in the highest categories of low carbohydrate-high protein diet the women in the current study did not yet reach the low carbohydrate and high protein content recommended by commercial diets. Considering the observed dose-response relation, we may assume that an even higher incidence of cardiovascular disease would be associated with full adherence to commercial diets.

The discrepancy between conclusions derived from short term intervention trials and those from long term survival studies needs to be resolved before low carbohydrate-high protein diets can safely be recommended to patients. But in the meantime, the short term benefits of low carbohydrate-high protein diets for weight loss that have made these diets appealing seem irrelevant in the face of increasing evidence of higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the long term.

Source: BMJ 2012;344:e3801


Marina Muñoz Cervera

Report: Iodine in diet.

Iodine is a trace mineral that the body needs to make thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal growth and development. In your body, about 70 – 80% of iodine is found in the thyroid gland in the neck. The rest is distributed throughout the body, particularly in the ovaries, muscles, and blood. If your body doesn’t have enough iodine, you can develop hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels). Symptoms include sluggishness or fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, and sensitivity to temperature changes. Deficiency happens more often in women than in men, and is more common in pregnant women and older children. In infants and children, hypothyroidism can affect physical and mental development.

The classic sign of iodine deficiency is an enlarged thyroid gland. Some people with hypothyroidism develop an extremely large thyroid, known as goiter. Today, iodine deficiencies in the United States and other developed countries are rare because iodine is added to table salt. And crops in developed countries are generally grown in iodine rich soil, so there is more iodine in food. But in developing countries, where soil is often low in iodine, more than 1 billion people may be at risk for iodine deficiencies.

Iodine is also used to clean wounds, and iodine tablets can be used to purify water.

Most people get plenty of iodine, and because of the complex way iodine can affect the thyroid, you should not take iodine supplements unless your doctor tells you to.

Dietary Sources:

Iodized salt is the main source of iodine in the diet. Plant and animal sea life, such as shellfish, white deep water fish, and brown seaweed kelp, absorb iodine from the water and are great sources of iodine. Garlic, lima beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, spinach, Swiss chard, summer squash, and turnip greens are also good sources of iodine. Bakeries may also add iodine to dough as a stabilizing agent, making bread another source of iodine.


The National Institute of Medicine Adequate Intake (AI) levels are as below:

  • Infants ages 0 – 6 months: 2,200 mcg (micrograms) per day
  • Infants ages 7 months – 1 year: 130 mcg per day
  • Children ages 1 – 8 years: 90 mcg per day
  • Children ages 9 – 13 years: 120 mcg per day
  • Children ages 14 – 18 years: 150 mcg per day


  • Ages 18 years and up: 150 mcg per day
  • Pregnant females: 220 mcg per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 290 mcg per day

The Tolerable Uptake Intake Levels (UL), which is the highest level of daily intake that’s not likely to result in side effects.

  • Children 1 – 3 years: 200 mcg per day
  • Children 4 – 8 years: 300 mcg per day
  • Children 9 – 13 years: 600 mcg per day
  • From 14 – 18 years (including pregnant and breastfeeding): 900 mcg day
  • For adults older than 19 (including pregnant and breastfeeding): 1,100 mcg per day

Wounds or burns: Follow your health care provider’s instructions. Iodine is applied topically to the skin to prevent and treat infections from wounds and burns.


Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

High doses of iodine may block the production of thyroid hormones, causing hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels) in someone with otherwise normal thyroid function. Too much iodine can also increase the risk for other thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease, certain thyroid cancers, and thyrotoxicosis (a dangerous condition involving a large amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream). For these reasons, you should not take iodine supplements without first talking to your doctor.

Taking more iodine per day than you usually get from table salt, or about 160 – 600 mcg (micrograms), may be harmful. Daily intake of 2,000 mcg iodine may be toxic, particularly in people with kidney disease or tuberculosis.

Routine thyroid function tests should be done on infants treated with topical iodine.

People with thryoid disease may be particularly susceptible to ill effects of iodine. People with dermatitis herpetiformis can have a worsening of symtoms when taking iodine.

Report: 12-year-old inspires his family to lose weight. Marshall Reid’s Blog Announcement.

niños con su madre en la cocina

– Marina Muñoz Cervera –

The story of a child who won his obesity.

Not happy about being overweight, Marshall Reid decided to take matters into his own hands — at the ripe, old age of 10. With the help of his family, Marshall created a plan for positive, long-lasting, healthy behaviors. As Marshall and his family’s eating and activity habits began to change, so did Marshall’s weight and energy level. A new book, Portion Size Me, written by Marshall and his mom, includes 110 recipes, helpful tips, personal thoughts, and journal pages for kids to track their own journeys.

Now, at age 12, Marshall is leading the Portion Size Me campaign as he continues to shed pounds and increase his energy by finding new, interesting ways to eat healthy and make exercise part of his daily routine. While Marshall and his family take a family vacation across the country in an Airstream trailer, he will be dishing out tips on the Jack and Jill website about healthy road food and staying active while traveling. Also, check out Jack and Jill’s Facebook page for a chance to win an autographed copy of Marshall’s book, Portion Size Me.

Last review: 19-11-18

Report: Fruit phenols can fight diabetes, heart disease; Peaches, plums ans nectarines have been shown to fight obesity-related heart disease.


– Marina Muñoz Cervera –

Peaches, plums and nectarines have been shown to fight obesity-related heart disease and diabetes.

With funding from the California Plum Board and the California Grape and Tree League, researchers say that the phenolic or plant compounds in stone fruits have anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties and may also reduce the oxidation of bad cholesterol LDL, which is associated with cardiovascular disease.

The findings are to be presented at the American Chemical Society in Philadelphia in August and are the first to show that the bioactive compounds of a fruit can work on different fronts against a disease, researchers claim.

“Our work shows that the four major phenolic groups — anthocyanins, clorogenic acids, quercetin derivatives and catechins — work on different cells — fat cells, macrophages and vascular endothelial cells,” explained lead author Luis Cisneros-Zevallos. “They modulate different expressions of genes and proteins depending on the type of compound.

Meanwhile, the same group has also shown that advanced breast cancer cells died in lab tests after treatments with peach and plum extracts, while leaving normal cells intact.

But it’s not just stone fruits which are high in phenolic compounds, which can strengthen the immune system.

Cherries, red grapes, berries, artichokes and potatoes are also high in phenols. Granny Smith and Fuiji apples are also good sources.


Daily News Health. Published Wednesday, June 20,2012, 11:48 a.m.

Report: Copper in diet.

alimentos ricos en cobre

– Marina Muñoz Cervera –

Copper is an essential trace mineral present in all body tissues.

Copper, along with iron, helps in the formation of red blood cells. It also helps in keeping the blood vessels, nerves, immune system, and bones healthy.

Food Sources:

Oysters and other shellfish, whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, and organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, cocoa, black pepper, and yeast are also sources of copper in the diet.

Side effects:

Normally people have enough copper in the foods they eat. Menkes disease (kinky hair syndrome) is a very rare disorder of copper metabolism that is present before birth. It occurs in male infants.

Lack of copper may lead to anemia and osteoporosis.

In large amounts, copper is poisonous. A rare inherited disorder, Wilson’s disease, causes deposits of copper in the liver, brain, and other organs. The increased copper in these tissues leads to hepatitis, kidney problems, brain disorders, and other problems.


The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following dietary intake for copper:


  • 0 – 6 months: 200 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
  • 7 – 12 months: 220 mcg/day


  • 1 – 3 years: 340 mcg/day
  • 4 – 8 years: 440 mcg/day
  • 9 – 13 years: 700 mcg/day

Adolescents and Adults:

  • Males and females age 14 – 18 years: 890 mcg/day
  • Males and females age 19 and older: 900 mcg/day

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods.

University of Maryland Medical Center. “Copper in diet”.